Meanwhile, they prepared guerrilla forces in Syria and Lebanon to go to war. The prison became the site of much political protest. On 13 April , a day hunger-strike started in Istanbul. The lack of discipline, the growing internal criticism and splinter groups within the organization were getting out of hand. This had led the organisation to execute some internal critics, especially ex-members who had joined Tekosin, a rival Marxist—Leninist organization.
Additionally, the military defeats and the reality of the armed conflict were eroding the notions of a Greater Kurdistan, the organization's primary goal. The cooperation with rogue partners, criminal regimes and some dictators , such as Saddam Hussein who gave them weapons in exchange for information on the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Masoud Barzani during the genocidal al Anfal campaign , had tarnished the organization's image.
A newly established Mahsum Korkmaz Academy, a political and military instruction academy, replaced the name of Helve Camp, and a new military draft law was approved, which obliged every family to send someone to the guerrilla forces.
According to David L. Philips, up to sixty PKK members were executed in , including Mahsum Korkmaz, who he believes was murdered on 28 March Between the and , the organization targeted the defectors and assassinated two of them in Sweden, two in Netherlands, three in Germany and one in Denmark. In , during the fourth Congress, the PKK under pressure and criticism decided to end the forced military conscription, the military draft law it had implemented during the third Congress. Some members also demanded the end of attacks on civilians which reportedly reduced the number of attacks against the civilians for a few years.
The organization's attempts to take into the account the demands and criticism of its support base had helped it to increase its popularity among some Kurds. According to Stanton, the PKK's relationship with its civilian supporters likely created incentives for the government to use terrorism against some Kurdish citizens. However, despite a numerous of changes, the organization failed to end the violent attacks on civilians and continued to use terrorism as one of its weapons against the government.
During these attacks 1 gendarmerie soldier was killed and 7 soldiers, 2 policemen and 3 civilians were injured. It was followed by a PKK raid on a police station in Siirt , two days later. Thousands of local Peshmergas with the support of more than 20, Turkish troops who had crossed the Iraqi border, tried to drive 10, PKK guerrillas from Northern Iraq. The president's death on 17 April led to the postponement of that meeting, and the plans were never presented.
To counter the growing force of the PKK the Turkish military started new counter-insurgency strategies between and Most of these villages were evacuated, but other villages were burned, bombed, or shelled by government forces, and several entire villages were obliterated from the air. While some villages were destroyed or evacuated, many villages were brought to the side of the Turkish government, which offered salaries to local farmers and shepherds to join the Village Guards , which would prevent the PKK from operating in these villages, while villages which refused were evacuated by the military.
These tactics managed to drive the rebels from the cities and villages into the mountains, although they still often launched reprisals on pro-government villages, which included attacks on civilians. He first went to Russia , then to Italy and Greece. He was eventually brought to the Greek embassy in Nairobi , Kenya , where he was arrested on 15 February at the airport in a joint MİT - CIA operation and brought to Turkey,  which resulted in major protests by Kurds worldwide.
After the unilateral cease-fire the PKK declared in September , their forces fully withdrew from the Republic of Turkey and set up new bases in the Qandil Mountains of Iraq  and in February they declared the formal end of the war. After AK Party came to power in , the Turkish state started to ease restrictions on the Kurdish language and culture. From to there was a power struggle inside the KONGRA-GEL between a reformist wing which wanted the organisation to disarm completely and a traditionalist wing which wanted the organisation to resume its armed insurgency once again.
Through the cease-fire years , , and , some people were killed according to the Turkish government. On 1 June , the PKK resumed its armed activities because they claimed Turkish government was ignoring their calls for negotiations and was still attacking their forces. As result, it reduced the size of its field units from 15—20 militants to 6—8 militants. It also avoided direct confrontations and relied more on the use of mines, snipers and small ambushes, using hit and run tactics. On 25 August two coordinated low-level blasts targeted a bank in Adana , on 27 August a school in Istanbul was targeted by a bombing, on 28 August there were three coordinated attacks in Marmaris and one in Antalya targeting the tourist industry  and on 30 August there was a TAK bombing in Mersin.
Minor clashes, however, continued in the South East due to Turkish counter-insurgency operations. In total, the conflict claimed over lives in In May , there was a bombing in Ankara that killed 6     and injured people.
The outpost was overrun and the PKK killed 12, wounded 17 and captured 8 Turkish soldiers. They then withdrew into Iraqi Kurdistan, taking the 8 captive soldiers with them. The Turkish military claimed to have killed 32 PKK fighters in hot pursuit operations, after the attack, however this was denied by the PKK and no corpses of PKK militants were produced by the Turkish military.
This major cross-border offensive, dubbed Operation Sun , started on 21 February  and was preceded by an aerial offensive against PKK camps in northern Iraq, which began on 16 December The PKK denied any involvement. On 1 May the PKK declared an end to its cease-fire,  launching an attack in Tunceli that killed four and injured seven soldiers. The PKK then stepped up its armed activities,  starting with a missile attack on a navy base in İskenderun , killing 7 and wounding 6 soldiers.
Another major attack in Hakkari occurred on 20 July , killing six and wounding seventeen Turkish soldiers, with one PKK fighter being killed. In November the cease-fire was extended until the Turkish general election on 12 June , despite alleging that Turkey had launched over 80 military operations against them during this period. The cease-fire was revoked early, on 28 February This then resulted in major Kurdish protests across Turkey as part of a civil disobedience campaign launched by the pro-Kurdish Peace and Democracy Party BDP ,  during these protests 2 people were killed, injured and 2, arrested by Turkish authorities.
However the Turkish army avoided the trap by destroying the heavy weapons from the air and using long range artillery to root out the PKK. The Turkish military declared operation was ended successfully on 11 August, claiming to have killed guerrillas and lost only six soldiers and two village guards. The letter called a cease-fire that included disarmament and withdrawal from Turkish soil and calling an end to armed struggle.
PKK announced that they would obey, stating that the year of is the year of solution either through war or through peace. Second phase which includes constitutional and legal changes towards the recognition of human rights of the Kurds starts simultaneously with withdrawal. On 6 and 7 October , riots erupted in various cities in Turkey for protesting the Siege of Kobane.
Protesters were met with tear gas and water cannons. Violence soon spread throughout Turkey. Many Kurdish businesses were destroyed by mobs.
The spring of saw the seasonal uptick in combat activity. The Serhildan, or people's uprising,  started on 14 March , Nusaybin during the funeral of  year-old PKK fighter Kamuran Dundar , who along with 13 other fighters was killed by the Turkish military after crossing into Turkey via Syria several days earlier. Dundar came from a Kurdish nationalist family which claimed his body and held a funeral for him in Nusaybin in which he was brought to the city's main mosque and people which held a march.
On the way back the march turned violent and protesters clashed with the police, during which both sides fired upon each other and many people were injured. A curfew was then placed in Nusaybin, tanks and special forces were brought in and  some people were arrested.
Protests are often held on 21 March, or Nowruz. Over people were injured  and another were arrested.
However, he conceded that "the security forces did not establish their targets properly and caused great damage to civilian houses. Zana was the first Kurdish woman to be elected into parliament. In the party became a member of Socialist International. After surviving a closure case in , HADEP was finally banned on 13 March on the grounds that it had become a "centre of illegal activities which included aiding and abetting the PKK". The European Court of Human Rights ruled in that the ban violated article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights which guarantees freedom of association.
Independents won 1,, votes or 5. The BDP called on its supporters to boycott the Turkish constitutional referendum on 12 September because the constitutional change did not meet minority demands. Nor will we vote in favour of the amendments and support a new fascist constitution. Tunceli was the only Kurdish majority province where a majority of the population voted "no" during the referendum.
Summary: If all goes to plan, over 29 years of violence in. Turkey between government forces and the Kurdistan. Workers' Party (PKK), which. If all goes to plan, over 29 years of violence in Turkey between government forces and the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), which has cost over.
According to figures released by the Anadolu Agency , citing a Turkish security source, from to August , there were 36, deaths in the conflict. This included 6, civilians, 7, security forces 5, soldiers, 1, village guards and policemen and 22, PKK fighters by August Contrary to the newest estimate, earlier figures by the Turkish military put the number of PKK casualties much higher, with 26, PKK dead by June ,  and 29, by March Between the start of the second insurgency in , and March , 2, PKK militants were claimed killed.
Both the PKK and Turkish military have accused each other of civilian deaths. Since the s, the European Court of Human Rights has condemned Turkey for the thousands of human rights abuses against Kurdish people.
According to human rights organisations since the beginning of the uprising 4, villages have been destroyed,  in which between , and 1,, Kurdish villagers have been forcibly evacuated from their homes, mainly by the Turkish military. The Uppsala Conflict Data Program recorded 25,—30, casualties to date, 22,—25, of which having died during the first insurgency, — during the cease-fire and 2,—4, during the second insurgency. Casualties from to , according to the UCDP are as following: .
The conflict's casualties between and March according to the General Staff of the Republic of Turkey, Turkish Gendarmerie, General Directorate of Security and since then until June according to Milliyet's analysis of the data of the General Staff of the Republic of Turkey and Turkish Gendarmerie were as following: .
The protesters denouncing Ankara position during Islamic State's siege of Kobani. This is the main incident out of the ceasefire period.
Turkey has led strikes and several ground operations in Syria and Iraq, in order to attack PKK-related groups. Accordingly, only a minor part of these operations casualties were from Turkey forces vs YPG forces. The Turkification of predominantly Kurdish areas in country's East and South-East were also bound in the early ideas and policies of the modern Turkish nationalism, going back to as early as the manifesto of Turkish nationalist Ziya Gokalp "Turkification, Islamization and Modernization".
Nobody else has such a right. It created a complex pattern of interaction between state of society, in which the regime favored its people in a distant geography, populated by locals marked as hostile in this regard, according to Prof. Caroline Elkins, the policy of governing a distant land to send settlers in order to reshape demographics there to resemble the homeland is named "settler colonialism". Joost Jongerden, Turkish settlement and re-settlement policies during the s period were influenced by two different forces — the desire to expand administration to rural areas and an alternative view of urbanization, allegedly producing "Turkishness".
Both Turkey and the PKK have committed numerous human rights abuses during the conflict. Former French ambassador to Turkey Eric Rouleau states: . According to the Ministry of Justice , in addition to the 35, people killed in military campaigns, 17, were assassinated between , when the conflict began, and An additional 1, people were reportedly assassinated in the first nine months of According to the Turkish press, the authors of these crimes, none of whom have been arrested, belong to groups of mercenaries working either directly or indirectly for the security agencies.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party has faced international condemnation for using terrorist tactics , which include kidnapping , civilian massacres , summary executions, suicide bombers , and child soldiers , and for its involvement in drug trafficking. The organization had also reportedly committed more than 25 massacres, killing more than innocent people, including women, elderly and children.
The organization has cooperated with rogue partners, violent organizations, criminal regimes and even dictators since the 80's. On 23 January , a group of guerrillas attacked a wedding party in Sirnak, killing eight people, including two children and four women. On 8 July , more than 16 civilians were executed by a group of PKK militants. The vast majority of victims were women and children. The vast majority of victims were children, elderly and women.
According to Turkish sources, the victims were mainly children and pregnant women.