Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He served as an ordained ruling elder in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. He worked in and retired from a fortune five hundred company in corporate America after forty years. He runs two blogs sites and is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: www.
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How to avoid it? Definitions from two sources: Heresy: An erroneous teaching, especially on issues of significance to salvation, requiring true Christians to divide from those who hold or teach it. We are warned against it in Acts and Philippians But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed. As we said before, so say I now again, if any man preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed.
Hereby know ye the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God: And every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come; and even now already is it in the world. Ye are of God, little children, and have overcome them: because greater is he that is in you, than he that is in the world. They are of the world: therefore speak they of the world, and the world heareth them. We are of God: he that knoweth God heareth us; he that is not of God heareth not us.
Hereby know we the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error. Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned: From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling. The use of it here by St.
The tendency of such departures from the doctrine of the Church to assume more and more of a deadly character, and to depart wider and wider from the truth, gave to the name of heretic a darker shade of condemnation in the mouth of Church writers as time advanced. But even in apostolic times some denied the resurrection 2 Timothy , 12 ; others denied the Lord that bought them 2 Peter ; and there were some who were of the synagogue of Satan Revelation ; so that already an heretical man, drawing away disciples after him, was a great blot in the Church.
It does not clearly appear what is intended by this term In 1 Timothy it meant refusing admission into the college of Church widows.
Polybius refers to those devoting themselves to the study of Greek literature as given to the Hellenike hairesis. It was used not simply for a teaching or a course followed, but also for those devoting themselves to such pursuit, namely, a sect, or assembly of those advocating a particular doctrine or mode of life. Its application, with censure, is found in 1 Cor. There being but one standard of truth, and one goal for all Christian life, any arbitrary choice varying from what was common to all believers, becomes an inconsistency and a sin to be warned against.
Roman Catholics, regarding all professed Christians who are not in their communion as heretics, modify their doctrine on this point by distinguishing between Formal and terial Heresy, the former being unconscious and unintentional, and between different degrees of each of these classes Cath. Encyclopedia, VII, ff. It designated either a doctrine or the party holding the doctrine, a doctrine that was sufficiently intolerable to destroy the unity of the Christian church.
In the early church, heresy did not refer to simply any doctrinal disagreement, but to something that seemed to undercut the very basis for Christian existence. Brown 3 From the modern work, A Biblical Guide to Orthodoxy and Heresy by Robert Bowman: Looking over these warnings from Scripture, we may classify heresies into six major categories: 1.
Heresies about revelation — teachings that distort, deny, or add to Scripture in a way that leads people to destruction; false claims to apostolic or prophetic authority. Heresies about God — teachings that promote false gods or idolatrous distortions of the true God. Heresies about the church — deliberate attempts to lead people away from the fellowship of true Christians; utter rejection of the church.
Note that errors in any one of these six categories tend to introduce errors into the other five. Since the Reformation is rejected as falling short of the needed restoration, 4 the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith is likewise rejected. We find then that an error in any area of doctrine can affect every other area.
Therefore, although heresies tend to fall directly into one or more of these six major categories, heresies can in fact occur on virtually any doctrinal subject. For example, someone who teaches that angels should be worshipped is teaching a heretical view Col. This is because worship of any creature completely cuts the heart out of any confession of God as the one God.
Nor should it be thought that the New Testament gives us a complete catalogue of all possible heresies. In our day there are literally thousands of clever distortions of Christian theology that deserve the label heresy, and they can be seen as such apart from being explicitly anticipated and identified as heretical in the Bible. The Bible teaches us what is absolutely essential, enunciates principles as to what is basic to sound Christian faith and what is nonessential, gives us a wide variety of examples of heresies, and expects us to exercise discernment in evaluating new and controversial teachings when they surface.
Furthermore, it must be realized that as the church progresses through history and deepens its understanding of Scripture, heresies in general are becoming more subtle, more deceiving, more easily mistaken for authentic Christianity.
Some elements of Gnosticism is seen in Mormon theology. Trinitarian Heresies: Modalism i.
A typical modalist approach is to regard God as the Father in creation, the Son in redemption, and the Spirit in sanctification. In other words, God exists as Father, Son and Spirit in different eras, but never as triune.
John, the Baptist, son of Zacharias and Elizabeth. The Classic Commentaries and Studies on the Biblical Apocrypha collection presents many of the most important late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century studies on the Apocrypha and related literature. Beit Daras, Palestine. Richmond, Surrey, England, UK. An exposition of the scriptures by Dallas Theological Seminary faculty. They are unequal in character, those on Acts being reputed the feeblest; others, as those on Matthew, Romans and Corinthians, are splendid examples of expository teaching. His education took place at Oxford, the University of Aberdeen, and Gottingen, and he later went on to become Professor of Humanity at University of Aberdeen, as well as the first ever Professor of Classical Archaeology at Oxford.
Stemming from Modalism, Patripassianism believed that the Father suffered as the Son. The Arian controversy was of major importance in the development of Christology during the fourth century and was addressed definitely in the Nicene Creed. Ebionitism Taught that while Jesus was endowed with particular charismatic gifts which distinguished him from other humans but nonetheless regarded Him as a purely human figure. Macedonianism Taught that that the Holy Spirit is a created being.
This led them to believe that each of the persons of the Trinity is only part God, only becoming fully God when they come together. It is an error held by some minister or member of a church; I mean either a true church, or an assembly pretending and professing to be a true church; for both Peter and Paul, where they foretell that heresies were to come, 2 Pet.
Therefore, the Scriptures gives not the name of heretics to those who are altogether without the visible church, but it calleth such by the names of heathens or unbelievers, or they that are without, or the like. It is an error voluntarily and freely chosen, both in the first invention or broaching of it which is proper to the heresiarchs , and in the maintaining of it or adhering to it which is common to all heretics.
Therefore, we give not the name of heretics to such Christians as are compelled, in time of persecution, to profess such or such an error, which, peradventure, were a formal heresy, if voluntarily and without compulsion professed. They ought, indeed, to die, and to endure the greatest torments, before they profess what they know to be an error; but this their sin is not properly called heresy, for an heretic doth freely and voluntarily hold that which is his error.
If I reject him might one say then I lose him, I destroy his soul. Nay saith the Apostle , his perdition is of himself, for he hath chosen his own ways, and his soul delighteth in his abominations.
It is such a choosing of error as is accompanied with a rejecting of truth. A heretic puts light for darkness, and darkness for light; good for evil, and evil for good; he chooseth error as truth, and refuseth truth as error. They that give heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils, do also depart from the faith, 1 Tim. It is an error professed and maintained, and which, by that means, becomes a scandal and snare to others. The heresies which are spoken of, 1 Cor.
Overview, One of over Bible commentaries freely available, this volume Genesis · Exodus · Leviticus Matthew Poole ( - ) was an English Nonconformist theologian. Offering verse-by-verse exposition, he also includes summaries for each chapter and book, questions and answers, information on cultural. Exodus 1 Commentary, One of over Bible commentaries freely available, this volume commentary on the Bible is highly Book Overview; Copyright Info; Bibliography Info . Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible.
And heretics are scandalous persons, to be avoided and rejected, Rom. It is an error contradictory of some chief and substantial truth, grounded upon, or, by necessary consequence, drawn from, the Holy Scripture. There was never yet any heretic in the Christian world who contradicted that which is literally and syllabically in Scripture. The most damnable heretic will offer to subscribe to the Scripture instead of a confession of faith, who yet will not subscribe to all truths which necessarily follow from the words of Scripture.
But I call not every error heresy, which is contrary to any consequential truth grounded upon Scripture. As the Scripture reckons not all who sin to be workers of iniquity, so it reckons not all who err to be heretics. Although there is not any sin or error in the true nature of it venial, yet every sin is not a gross and heinous sin, and every error is not heresy.
Heresies are mentioned as greater evils than schisms, 1 Cor. Heretics are deceivers and seducers, who endeavour to pervert others and to overthrow their faith, 2 Tim. For this cause the Donatists were condemned as heretics, without imputation of heresy to Cyprian. And, O strange turning about of things saith Vincentius Lirinensis, Advers. This last ingredient which is found in heresy is hinted by the Arabic interpreter, 1 Cor. I believe, saith the Apostle, in part what I hear of your schisms, for there must be also heresies, i.
Calvin, Institutes. From all which scriptural observations, we may make up a description of heresy to this sense: Heresy is a gross and dangerous error, voluntarily held and factiously maintained by some person or persons within the visible church, in opposition to some chief or substantial truth or truths grounded upon and drawn from the holy Scripture by necessary consequence.